The objective of this issue is to answer questions such as: is state power currently being challenged? Is power shifting away from being in the hands of centralized state governments? Are non-state-based actors, groups and networks replacing state functions for some populations? The questions asked provide an understanding of when citizens are likely to question or withdraw their support for a state’s legitimacy, which requires investigating social norms. A key challenge is to understand what social norms, rules or ideas underpin citizens’ perceptions of the state’s right to rule in a specific time and place (Mcloughlin, 2014). The legitimacy of states is brought into question, when non-state-based networks such as criminal syndicates, begin to take over state functions, such as financially supporting communities and keeping them safe. This duty to keep Canadians safe is imperative, therefore, this journal is a foundational piece to inform readers of the current security issues in Canada.
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